Documents data, connected with international relations,diplomacy, history,politics, and other useful data on english. Документные данные, связанные с международными отношениями,дипломатией, историей, политикой, и другие полезные данные на английском языке.
In order for multilateral diplomacy to function
properly, diplomats must possess several qualities. Kaufmann cites ten qualities
that he believes are most important. He considers truthfulness and honesty to
be of prime importance in diplomacy. This does not mean that diplomats need be
open and frank about their tactics or that their positions can never be
adjusted. It does require that references to historical, legal, and statistical
data be correct and that agreements and pledges made earlier be honored.
Although honesty is considered to be an important virtue, its definition has
been more than once stretched to the limits. For example, it is not uncommon
for apparently solid endorsement of a member state's candidacy for an important
position on a UN committee, or for a proposal drawn up in a
"non-paper", to suddenly evaporate, sometimes even in the first
round of voting. This can lead to only one conclusion - that some of the
pledges made were untruthful (or that a delegation "forgot" to inform
the sponsors of their withdrawal of support). Because voting procedures in
international organizations are never transparent and opinion polls do not
exist within the UN (if opinion polls were used, I am certain the number of proposals made and candidacies
announced, with all
the prestige attached to them, would be reduced significantly), it is of the utmost importance for all participants
to have a thorough understanding of the common diplomatic vocabulary in order
to be able to make a sound judgment of the actual support one's proposal or
candidate can expect. Indeed, the mere show of sympathy for a certain
delegation is often misinterpreted as endorsement of proposals or candidates.
A feel for accuracy is therefore a second important
quality every diplomat should have, but especially one involved in multilateral
diplomacy. Kaufrnann states that "ambiguity and vagueness are probably as
frequent in conference diplomacy as precision and single-minded clarity".
Hence, effective communication in multilateral forums calls for both active
and passive precision. This means the ability to get a message across to delegates
who do not necessarily share the same cultural background and are not as
proficient in commonly used languages like English or French, and the talent
to listen to and interpret material, to judge its merits and report them in
both letter and spirit. However, delegates sometimes feign ineptitude in
languages or in a particular expertise in order to hide their political
objectives or to achieve other gains. Moreover, the fact remains that compromise
is still diplomacy's middle name, and accuracy thus remains only an ideal.
Nonetheless, it should be remembered that meticulously spelled-out texts are
often of little practical use to the people who must implement their instructions,
since such detail tends to limit maneuverability.
In order to work in an environment that to an outsider
might seem frustratingly intricate, a player in multilateral diplomacy needs
the right attitude as well. Kaufmann mentions commendable but sometimes
contradictory human qualities like calm, good temper, patience, modesty and
zeal. Of course, being overly outspoken will not be an asset to any
negotiator, particularly in multilateral diplomacy, but the inability to show
any emotion will likewise be a hindrance. Granted, attending meetings of seemingly
trivial committees and plenary sessions filled with long, arduous monologues by
jaded officials may not be the most appealing activities on a rainy Friday
afternoon, but, as Kaufmann puts it, "exaggerated placidity will provoke
its own kind of irritation"; or, in Talleyrand's words, "surtout pas
trop de zele". Diplomats need to be able to exercise patience in order to
know when to introduce a proposal and when to wait. Since multilateral diplomacy
involves a larger audience, some actors develop an inclination toward vanity.
Sometimes, this is not restricted to individuals alone; entire delegations can
become convinced that every UN member state should be made fully aware
of the exceptional vision set forth in their proposals. When other delegations
do not share this opinion, irritating and shameful spectacles can result.
Given multilateral diplomacy's inherent complexity, a
diplomat needs to be adaptable as well. This means that one has to be able to
work on several problems and in several locations' simultaneously. One of the
most distinctive features of multilateral diplomacy is the constant mental
leaps one has to make in order to determine the reasons why particular
representatives adopt certain views — because of national interests,
personal convictions, or the need for bargaining chips for negotiations in
other forums. Indeed, conference diplomacy often calls for the ability to play
chess on different boards at the same time. Yet Kaufmann states that
adaptability is perhaps best demonstrated through psychological flexibility,
the ability to listen carefully to other delegates while suppressing the usual
urge to constantly place oneself at the center of attention.
Language versatility, as Kaufmann calls it, can be considered an
important aspect of adaptability. Although English has ousted French as the
predominant means of communication in diplomacy, the latter's use and that of
other languages is still very important and useful. The effort to try to
address a counterpart in their native tongue can yield instant credit, which
might otherwise not be obtained. Moreover, the ability to shift instantly from
one language to another gives any person an edge. When colleagues are less
capable in this respect, it places them automatically in an intermediary
position, which can be subsequently exploited.